"I am comparing the certificates of analysis for Eureka Vapor cartridges. While all are high in THC, none appear to have any terpene content. Without the terpenes, is there really any difference in the nature of the effects between Sativa, Indica, and Hybrid, assuming THC content is the same?"
Terpenes, in unison with cannabinoids promote what is called the "entourage effect". These terpenes alone, have their own host of effects that when paired with THC or other cannabinoids, help to amplify the effects. It might not be the most noticeable difference, but chemically the terpenes help to facilitate your bodies absorption of THC, they can provide anti-inflammatory, sedative, analgesic, anti-anxiety, mood improvement, as well as many other effects. Think of it is a collaborative effort.
While it is true that terpene profile plays a significant role in the effects of cannabis, it is not the whole picture.
You can kind of think about terpenes like spices in food. They have a profound effect on smell and taste, and by extension your experience of eating the food, but do little to alter the fundamental nutritional content of the dish — a Cajun-spiced potato is still just a potato.
In our cannabis analogy, the cannabinoid content would be the potato. The presence (or absence) of cannabinoids in addition to THC plays a more significant role in the effects of any particular batch. Terpenes enhance the flavor and subtleties of the high, while the cannabinoids are responsible for the overall trajectory of the effects.
So to answer your question directly – yes. Without the terpenes there will still be noticeable differences across various batches of cannabis (including extracts like vape cartridges) due to differing cannabinoid profiles. That said, I think most people tend to agree, myself included, that retaining terpene profile is highly desirable… nobody wants unseasoned potatoes!